Smoothed Particle Magnetohydrodynamics III. Multidimensional tests and the div B = 0 constraint

D.J. Price, J.J. Monaghan

Submitted: 9th June 2005 Accepted: 31st August 2005

[ Paper I ][ Paper II ][ PhD Thesis ][ Paper III ][ Paper IV ]


In two previous papers (Price & Monaghan 2004a,b) (papers I,II) we have described an algorithm for solving the equations of Magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) using the Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) method. The algorithm uses dissipative terms in order to capture shocks and has been tested on a wide range of one dimensional problems in both adiabatic and isothermal MHD. In this paper we investigate multidimensional aspects of the algorithm, refining many of the aspects considered in papers I and II and paying particular attention to the code's ability to maintain the div B = 0 constraint associated with the magnetic field. In particular we implement a hyperbolic divergence cleaning method recently proposed by Dedner et al. (2002) in combination with the consistent formulation of the MHD equations in the presence of non-zero magnetic divergence derived in papers I and II. Various projection methods for maintaining the divergence-free condition are also examined. Finally the algorithm is tested against a wide range of multidimensional problems used to test recent grid-based MHD codes. A particular finding of these tests is that in SPMHD the magnitude of the divergence error is dependent on the number of neighbours used to calculate a particle's properties and only weakly dependent on the total number of particles. Whilst many improvements could still be made to the algorithm, our results suggest that the method is ripe for application to problems of current theoretical interest, such as that of star formation.

[high res pdf offprint* (16Mb) ][ see all files ]

*This is an electronic version of an article published in Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society: complete citation information for the final version of the paper, as published in the print edition of Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, is available on the Blackwell Synergy online delivery service, accessible via the journal's website (or