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%A G. B. Dantzig
%A D. R. Fulkerson
%A S. M. Johnson
%T Solution of a large-scale traveling-salesman problem
%J Op. Res.
%V 2
%P 393-410
%D 1954
%K jrnl, OR, c1954, c195x, c19xx, zz1221, travelling salesman problem, TSP,
   salesperson, algorithm, cutting plane method
%X -- 166695@[Jstor]['21].
   Reprinted with an intro by V.Chvatal and W.Cook in
   '50 Years of Integer Programming 1958-2008',
   M. Junger et al. (eds.), Springer, 2010,
   -- [doi:10.1007/978-3-540-68279-0_1]['21],
   [Also search for: travelling salesman].

%A W. Cook
%T Shortest possible tour to nearly every pub in the United Kingdom
%D 2016+/-
%K TR, c2016, c201x, c20xx, zz1221, pub crawl, UK, travelling salesman problem,
   UK49687, TSP, salesperson, pubs, PNPproblem
%X "... In Feb. 2018, the Washington Post reported that it would take at least
   1,000 years for a computer to find an optimal route to only 22 pts. So we
   were excited a couple of years ago when we computed the shortest possible
   walk to 24,727 pubs. A ton of math & 10 months of time on a fast computer
   brought home the tour. The comp'n even received fun coverage in The Guardian
   (Oct. 21, 2016), ..."
   -- crawl@[uwaterloo]['21].
   (The G [www][22/10/2016].)
   (Collected ~ 25,000 pubs in 2015, 49,687 by 2016.  NB W. not S. Cook.)
   [Also search for: TSP travelling].

%A C. Mathieu
%A H. Zhou
%T A simple algorithm for graph reconstruction
%J arXiv
%D 2021
%K TR, c2021, c202x, c20xx, zz1221, graph reconstruction algorithm, maths,
   distance query, queries, distances2graph
%X "How efficiently can we find an unknown graph using distance queries between
   its vertices? We assume that the unknown g. is connected, unweighted, & has
   bounded degree. The goal is to find every edge in the g.. ... admits a
   reconstruction alg. based on multi-phase Voronoi-cell decomposition & using
   O~(n^{3/2}) dist. queries. ... we analyze a simple reconstruction alg.. We
   show that, on random Delta-regular gs., [it] uses O~(n) dist.queries. As
   by-products, we can reconstruct those gs. using O(log^2(n)) queries to an
   all-distances oracle or O~(n) queries to a betweenness oracle, & we bound the
   metric dim'n of those gs. by log^2(n).  Our reconstruction alg. has a
   v.simple structure, & is highly parallelizable. On general gs. of bounded
   degree, [it] has subquadratic query complexity."
   -- 2112.04549@[arXiv]['21].

%A Sang Won Bae
%T Faster counting empty convex polygons in a planar point set
%V 175
%P #106221
%D 2022
%K IPL, jrnl, c2021, c202x, c20xx, zz1221, algorithm, count, counting, polygon,
   empty, point set, sets, 2D
%X "... present two algs: one counts the # of all convex empty polygons in time
   O(T) & the other counts the # of convex empty m-gons for all 3 <= m <= k in
   time O(kT), where T denotes the # of empty triangles in S. Note that T varies
   from Omega(n^2) to O(n^3), while its expected value is known to be Theta(n^2)
   when n input pts are chosen uniformly & independently at random from a
   convex, bounded body."  (online Dec 2O21.)
   -- [doi:10.1016/j.ipl.2021.106221]['21].

%A L. Fortnow
%T Fifty years of P vs. NP and the possibility of the impossible
%V 65
%N 1
%P ?-?
%D 2022
%K jrnl, CACM, c2022, c202x, c20xx, zz1221, algorithm, complexity, NP, NPC,
   PNPproblem, news, views, intro, survey, hard, problems, RSA
%X "On May 4, 1971, computer scientist/mathematician Steve Cook introduced the
   P vs. NP problem to the world in his paper, 'The Complexity of Theorem
   Proving Procedures.' More than 50 years later, the world is still trying to
   solve it. In fact, I addressed the subject 12 y. ago in a Comm. article,
   'The Status of the P versus NP Problem.' The P vs. NP problem, & the theory
   behind it, has not changed dramatically since that 2009 article, but the
   world of computing most certainly has. ... I have chosen to view advances in
   computing, optimization, & m.learning through a P vs. NP lens. ..."
   -- [doi:10.1145/3460351]['21], online 12/'21, via ajm.
   [Also search for: PNPproblem]  and  [also search for: Cook NPC].

%A M. Ouali
%A R. D. King
%T Cascaded multiple classifiers for secondary structure prediction
%J Protein Sci.
%V 9
%N 6
%P 1162-1176
%D 2008
%K jrnl, MolBio, c2008, c200x, c20xx, zz1221, RDKing, protein,
   secondary structure, prediction, long range, interaction
%X "We describe a new classifier for protein S.S. pred'n that is formed by
   cascading together different types of classifiers using neural n/wks & linear
   discrimination. ... achieves an accuracy of 76.7% (... Jack-knife proc.) on a
   new nonredundant dataset of 496 nonhomologous seqs. (...). This database was
   esp. designed to train & test protein PSS methods, & it uses a more stringent
   defn of homologous seq. than in prev. studies. We show that it is possible to
   design classifiers that can highly discriminate the three classes (H,E,C)
   with an accuracy of up to 78% for beta-strands, using only a local window &
   resampling techniques. This indicates that the importance of long-range
   interactions for the pred'n of beta-... has been probably prev. overest'd."
   -- [doi:10.1110/ps.9.6.1162].
   [Also search for: protein secondary structure prediction].

%A M. Krenn
%A et al
%T Self-referencing embedded strings (SELFIES): A 100% robust molecular string
%J arXiv
%D 2019
%O Mach. Learn., Sci. Technol. (MLST), 1, 045024, Oct., 2020
%K TR, c2019, c201x, c20xx, zz1221, SELFIES, SMILES, molecule, representation,
   chemical compound, molecule, string
%X "... the std strings molecular rep'n SMILES shows substantial weaknesses
   in that task because large fractions of strings do not corr. to valid
   molecules. ... we solve this problem at a fundamental level & introduce
   SELFIES (SELF-referencIng Embedded Strings), a string-based rep'n of
   molecules which is 100% robust. Every SELFIES string corresponds to a valid
   molecule, & SELFIES can represent every molecule. SELFIES can be directly
   applied in arb. m/c learning models without the adaptation of the models;
   each of the generated molecule candidates is valid. In our experiments, the
   model's internal memory stores two orders of magnitude more diverse molecules
   than a similar test with SMILES. [&] as all molecules are valid, it allows
   for explanation & interp'n of the internal working of the generative models."
   -- 1905.13741@[arXiv]['21].
   [Also search for: chemical SMILES].

%A A. G. Mainous III
%A et al
%T COVID-19 Post-acute sequelae among adults: 12 month mortality risk
%J Frontiers in Medicine
%D 2021
%K jrnl, c2021, c202x, c20xx, zz1221, covid19, covid-19, long covid, longCovid,
   hospitalization, hospitalisation, human health, illness,
   risks, mortality, death
%X "... The 12-month adjusted all-cause mortality risk was sig. higher for
   patients with severe COVID-19 compared to both C19 -ve patients (HR 2.50;
   95% CI 2.02, 3.09) & mild C19 patients (HR 1.87; 95% CI 1.28, 2.74). ...
   Patients with a C19 hospitalization were at sig. increased risk for future
   mortality. In a time when nearly all C19 hospitalizations are preventable
   this study points to an important & under-investigated sequela of C19 & the
   corr. need for prevention."
      "... The mild/moderate C19 patients were not at increased risk of death
      compared to the C19 -ve group ..."
   -- [doi:10.3389/fmed.2021.778434]['21].
   (Also see The Grauniad[www][1/12/2021].)
   [So if hospitalized, >2x the risk of dying in the following 12 months.]
   [Also search for: longCovid].

%A J. Sourimant
%A et al
%T 4'-Fluorouridine is an oral antiviral that blocks respiratory syncytial
   virus and SARS-CoV-2 replication
%J Science
%V ?
%D 2021
%K jrnl, MolBio, c2021, c202x, c20xx, zz1221, SARSCoV2, covid-19, covid19,
   antiviral, drug, 4'-fluorouridine, 4'-FlU, 4FLU, EIDD-2749, EIDD2749,
   EIDD-2801, molnupiravir, polymerase, RdRP, inhibitor
%X "... We describe 4'-fluorouridine (4'-FlU, EIDD-2749), a ribonucleoside
   analog that inhibits RSV, related RNA viruses, & SARS-CoV-2 with high
   selectivity index in cells & human airway epithelia organoids. Polymerase
   inhibition within in vitro RdRP assays established for RSV & SARS-CoV-2
   revealed transcriptional stalling after incorporation. Once-daily oral
   treatment was highly efficacious at 5 mg/kg in RSV-infected mice or 20 mg/kg
   in ferrets infected with different SARS-CoV-2 variants-of-concern, initiated
   24 or 12 hours after infection, respectively. ..."
   -- [doi:10.1126/science.abj5508]['21],

%A D. R. Owen
%A et al
%T An oral SARS-CoV-2 Mpro inhibitor clinical candidate for the treatment of
%J Science
%D 2021
%K jrnl, MolBio, c2021, c202x, c20xx, zz1221, covid19, SARS-CoV-2, SARSCoV2,
   mPro, inhibitor, drug, PF-07321332, PF07321332
%X "... report the discovery & characterization of PF-07321332, an orally
   bioavailable SARS-CoV-2 main protease inhibitor with in vitro pan-human
   coronavirus antiviral activity & excellent off-target selectivity & in vivo
   safety profiles. PF-07321332 has demonstrated oral activity in a
   mouse-adapted SARS-CoV-2 model & has achieved oral plasma concentrations
   exceeding the in vitro antiviral cell potency in a phase 1 clinical trial in
   healthy human participants."
   -- [doi:10.1126/science.abl4784]['21].

%A V. Koltun
%A D. Hafner
%T The h-index is no longer an effective correlate of scientific reputation
%J PLoS One
%D 2021
%K jrnl, eJrnl, c2021, c202x, c20xx, zz1221, Hindex, busted, bibliometrics,
   gamed, scammed, broken, hmIndex, Hfrac, fractional, multiple authors,
   authorship, scientific research, academia, university, management,
   faculty, deans, KPIs
%X "... A scientist's h-index affects hiring, promotion, & funding decisions, &
   thus shapes the progress of sci.. ... We find that the correlation of the
   h-index with awards that indicate recognition by the scientific community has
   substantially declined. These trends are assoc. with changing authorship
   patterns. We show that these declines can be mitigated by fractional
   allocation of citations among authors, ..."
   -- [doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0253397]['21].
   [Also search for: hmIndex]  and  [also search for: Campbell law].

%A C. Woolston
%T Stagnating salaries present hurdles to career satisfaction
%J Nature
%V 599
%P 519-521
%D 2021
%K news, views, c2021, c202x, c20xx, zz1221, university, scientific, research,
   STEM, science, scientist, researcher, management, faculty, job, jobs, career,
   salary, pay
%X "Fewer than half of respondents to Nature's 2021 salary and satisfaction
   survey feel positive about their prospects. ... High salaries proved to be
   more common in industry than academia. ..."
   -- [doi:10.1038/d41586-021-03041-0]['21].
   [Also search for: science career].

%A V. S. Dimitrov
%A G. A. Jullien
%A W. C. Miller
%T Theory and applications of the double-base number system
%J IEEE Trans. on Comp.
%V 48
%N 10
%P 1098-1106
%D 1999
%K jrnl, c1999, c199x, c19xx, zz1221, double base number system, DBNS, CDBNR,
   MDLNS, integers, computer arithmetic
%X "... we analyze some of the main properties of a double base number system,
   using bases 2 & 3; in particular, we emphasize the sparseness of the rep'n.
   A simple geometric interp'n allows an efficient implemen'n of the basic
   arithmetic ops. & we introduce an index calculus for logarithmic-like
   arithmetic with considerable h/w reductions in lookup table size. We discuss
   the application of this # system in the area of digital signal processing; we
   illustrate the discussion with [egs] of finite impulse response filtering."
   -- [doi:10.1109/12.805158]['21],
   "... digits only 0,1 and requiring o(log N) nonzero digits ... DBNS ...
    using bases 2 and 3 ... x = SUM_{i,j} d_{i,j} 2^i 3^j  ..."
    (Generalises to: Multi-Dimensional Logarithmic Number System (MDLNS).)
   [Also search for: computer arithmetic].

%A A. Davies
%A et al
%T Advancing mathematics by guiding human intuition with AI
%J Nature
%V 700
%P 70-74
%D 2021
%K jrnl, c2021, c202x, c20xx, zz1221, maths, mathematics, DeepMind, AI,
   Birch, Swinnerton, Dyer, theorem, theorems, aided
%X "... Since the 1960s, mathematicians have used computers to assist in the
   discovery of patterns & formulation of conjectures, most famously in the
   Birch & Swinnerton-Dyer conjecture, a Millennium Prize Problem. Here we
   provide examples of new fundamental results in pure maths that have been
   discovered with the assistance of machine learning - demonstrating a method
   by which machine learning can aid mathematicians in discovering new
   conjectures & theorems. ... led to meaningful math. contributions on
   important open problems: a new connection between the algebraic & geometric
   structure of knots, & a candidate alg. predicted by the combinatorial
   invariance conjecture for symmetric groups. ..."
   -- [doi:10.1038/s41586-021-04086-x]['21].

%A D. Robson
%T The Intelligence Trap - Why Smart People Make Dumb Mistakes
%D 2020
%K book, text, c2020, c202x, c20xx, zz1221, smart, clever, intelligence, IQ,
   human behaviour, psychology, thinking, expertise, functional stupidity,
   mistake, blunder, judgement
%X 1st ed 2020; hb us$44; uk us isbn:0393651428; uk us isbn13:978-0393651423.
   "... reveals the surprising ways that even the brightest minds & most
   talented organizations can go wrong - from some of Thomas Edison's worst
   ideas to failures at NASA, Nokia, & the FBI. And he offers practical advice
   to avoid mistakes based on the timeless lessons of Benjamin Franklin,
   Richard Feynman, & Daniel Kahneman."

%A C. Lacaux
%A et al ...
%A D. Oudiette
%T Sleep onset is a creative sweet spot
%J Sci. Adv.
%V 7
%N 50
%P ?-?
%D 2021
%K jrnl, c2021, c202x, c20xx, zz1221, human, brain, mind, creativity, creative,
   sleep, onset
%X "... we show that the brain activity common to the twilight zone between
   sleep & wakefulness (nonrapid eye movement sleep stage 1 or N1) ignites
   creative sparks. Participants (N=103) were exposed to math. problems without
   knowing that a hidden rule allowed solving them almost instantly. We found
   that spending at least 15s in N1 during a resting period tripled the chance
   to discover the hidden rule (83% v. 30% when participants remained awake), &
   this effect vanished if subjects reached deeper sleep. Our findings suggest
   that there is a creative sweet spot within the sleep-onset period, & hitting
   it requires individuals balancing falling asleep easily [v.] falling asleep
   too deeply."
   -- [doi:10.1126/sciadv.abj5866]['21].
   [Also search for: human creativity].

%A S. Pinker
%T Rationality: What It Is, Why It Seems Scarce, Why It Matters
%I Viking
%P 432
%D 2021
%K book, text, c2021, c202x, c20xx, zz1221, thought, rational, rationality,
   irrationality, decision making, problem solving, human behaviour
%X 1st ed 2021; hb us$15; uk us isbn:0525561994; isbn13:978-0525561996.
   "... rejects the cynical cliche that humans are simply irrational-cavemen out
   of time[*] saddled with biases, fallacies, & illusions. After all, we
   discovered the laws of nature, lengthened & enriched our lives, & set out the
   benchmarks for rationality itself.  We actually think in ways that are
   sensible in the low-tech contexts in which we spend most of our lives, but
   fail to take advantage of[*] the powerful tools of reasoning we've discovered
   over the millennia: logic, critical thinking, probability, correlation &
   causation ..."
   ([*] don't they contradict?-)

%A M. O. Renou
%A et al ...
%A M. Navascues
%T Quantum theory based on real numbers can be experimentally falsified
%J Nature
%D 2021
%K jrnl, physics, c2021, c202x, c20xx, zz1221, quantum theory, real,
   complex numbers, number, experiment
%X "... Although most theories of physics are based on real numbers, q.theory
   was the 1st to be formulated in terms of operators acting on complex Hilbert
   spaces. This has puzzled countless physicists, inc. the fathers of the
   theory, for whom a real version of q.theory, in terms of real operators,
   seemed much more natural. In fact, prev. studies have shown that such a
   'real q.theory' can reproduce the outcomes of any multipartite experiment,
   as long as the parts share arbitrary real q.states. Here we investigate
   whether complex #s are actually needed in the q.formalism. We show this to be
   the case by proving that real & complex Hilbert-space formulations
   of q.theory make different predictions in n/wk scenarios comprising
   independent states & measurements. This allows us to devise a Bell-like
   experiment, the successful realization of which would disprove real q.theory,
   in the same way as standard Bell experiments disproved local physics."
   -- [doi:10.1038/s41586-021-04160-4]['21].
   (Does that make complex numbers real?-)

%A K. S. Lee
%A et al ...
%A R.Dumke
%T Entanglement between superconducting qubits and a tardigrade
%J arXiv
%D 2021
%K TR, physics, c2021, c202x, c20xx, zz1221, quantum, entanglement, entangled,
   life, lifeform, live, living animal, tardigrade, qubit, igNobel
%X "... We observe coupling between the animal in cryptobiosis & a
   superconducting q.bit & prepare a highly entangled state between this
   combined system & another qubit. The tardigrade itself is shown to be
   entangled with the remaining subsystems. The animal is then observed to
   return to its active form after 420 hours at sub 10mK temperatures & pressure
   of 6x10^{−6} mbar, setting a new record for the conditions that a complex
   form of life can survive."
   -- [arXiv]['21].
   Also see news@[igs]['21].
   (What's next, S's cat?)

%A M. Lily
%A A. Clare
%A et al
%T Evaluation of a permutation-based evolutionary framework for
   Lyndon factorizations
%J Parallel Problem Solving from Nature – PPSN XVI
%P 390-403
%D 2020
%K conf, c2020, c202x, c20xx, zz1221, MolBio, AClare, Lyndon factorization,
   LyndonWord, word, words, string, strings, alphabet, ordering
%X "String factorization is an important tool for partitioning data for parallel
   proc. & other alg.techniques ... . Duval's well-known alg. uniquely factors
   a string over an ordered alphabet into Lyndon words, i.e., patterned strings
   which are strictly smaller than all of their cyclic rotations. While D's alg.
   produces a pre-determined factorization, modern applications motivate the
   demand for fs. with specific properties, e.g., those that minimize the # of
   factors or consist of factors with similar lengths. ... we consider the
   problem of finding an alphabet ordering that yields a Lyndon f. with such
   properties. We introduce a flexible evolutionary f/wk & evaluate it on
   biol. seq. data. For the minimization case, we also propose a new
   problem-specific heuristic, Flexi-Duval, & a problem-specific mutation
   operator for Lyndon f.. Our results show that our f/wk is competitive with
   Flexi-Duval for minimization & yields high quality & robust solns for
   balancing where no problem-specific alg. is available."
   -- pdf@[AberU]['21],
   [Also search for: Lyndon factorization].

%A L. Rosner
%A N. C. Kramer
%T Verbal venting in the social web: effects of anonymity and group norms on
   aggressive language use in online comments
%J Social Media & Society
%V 2
%N 3
%P ?-?
%D 2016
%K jrnl, c2016, c201x, c20xx, zz1221, social media, twitter, tweet, facebook,
   blog, blogging, comments, anonymity, anonymous, identity, aggression,
   aggressive, rude, rudeness, nasty, incivility, uncivil, abuse, bullying,
   troll, trolling
%X "... Drawing on the social identity & deindividuation effects (SIDE) model,
   ... conducts a lab. experiment with a 2 (anonymity vs. no anonymity) x2
   (aggressive norm vs. non-aggressive norm) between-subjects design in order to
   disentangle the effects of anonymity, social group norms, & their
   interactions on aggressive language use in online comments. Results reveal
   that participants used more aggressive expressions in their comments when
   peer comments on a blog included aggressive wording (i.e., the social grp
   norm was aggressive). Anonymity had no direct effect; however, we found a
   tendency that users' conformity to an aggressive social norm of commenting is
   stronger in an anonymous environment."
   -- [doi:10.1177%2F2056305116664220]['21].
   [Also search for: nasty social media].

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