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%T European Conf. on Machine Learning (ECML)
%K ECML, ECML14,2003, ECML,2004, ECML16,2005, ECML17,2006, ECML32,2021,
   CFP,conf,AI,Euro,EEC,www,HREF,http,  zz0421,zz0122,zz0422
%X [13-17 Sep 2021] online, 31 Jan., Jrnl track deadline 2 May 2021
   [2006 Sept 18-22 Berlin, deadline 26 April 2006
   [2005 Oct 3-7] (& PKDD) Porto .pt, deadline 16 May 2005
   [2004 Sept 20-24] (& PKDD), deadline 26/4/2004
   [2003 Sept 22-26] Croatia (with PKDD 2003) deadline 30 April 2003 (12 pages)

%T Int. Conf. on Computational Creativity
%K ICCC, ICCC21,2021, Conf, CFP,www,HREF,http, zz0421, zz0322
%X [14-18 Sep 2021] virtual (was Mexico City), deadline 2 April 2021

%T Maximum Entropy and Bayesian Methods Workshop
%K MAXENT, MaxEnt, MaxEnt17,MaxEnt97,1997, MaxEnt21,2021,
%X [4-9 July 2021] online, deadline 10 April 2021

%T Int. Conf. on Types for Proofs and Programs
%K TYPES, type, proof, program, theory, CFP,conf,www,HREF,http, Types23,2017,
   Types24,2018, Types25,2019, Types26,2020, Types27,2021,
   zz0421, zz0322, zz0323
%X [14-18 June 2021] online, deadline 16 April 2021
   [2-5 March 2020], Italy, *cancelled* cov'd-19, deadline 20 Jan 2020
   [2019 June 11-14] Oslo, deadline 4 March 2019
   . . .
   [2017 May 29 - June 1] Budapest, deadline 20/3/2017
   Grew from a workshop, e.g., ...
      [2006 April 18-24] Nottingham
      [2003 April 30 - May 4], Torino .it, deadline 20 March 2003.

%A A. Stefanie Reinhold
%A J. Ignacio Sanguinetti-Scheck
%A K. Hartmann
%A M. Brecht
%T Behavioral and neural correlates of hide-and-seek in rats
%J Science
%V 365
%N 6458
%P 1180-1183
%D 2019
%K jrnl, c2019, c201x, c20xx, zz0421, animal behaviour, rat, rats,
   hide and seek, play, fun, game, games
%X "... We played hide-and-seek, an elaborate role-play game, with rats. We did
   not offer food rewards but engaged in playful interactions after finding or
   being found. Rats quickly learned the game & learned to alternate between
   hiding v. seeking roles. They guided seeking by vision & memories of past
   hiding locations & emitted game event-specific vocalizations. When hiding,
   rats vocalized infrequently & they preferred opaque over transparent hiding
   enclosures, a preference not observed during seeking. Neuronal recordings
   revealed intense prefrontal cortex activity that varied with game events &
   trial types ('hide' versus 'seek') & might instruct role play. The elaborate
   cognitive capacities for hide-and-seek in rats suggest that this game might
   be evolutionarily old."
   -- [doi:10.1126/science.aax4705]['21].
   (Surely an IgNobel prize contender?)

%A B. Vernot
%A et al
%T Unearthing Neanderthal population history using nuclear and mitochondrial
   DNA from cave sediments
%J Science
%D 2021
%K jrnl, MolBio, c2021, c202x, c20xx, zz0421, ancient DNA, Neanderthal, human,
   history, cave, sediment, Spain
%X "... developed methods for the enrichment & analysis of nuclear DNA from
   sediments, & applied them to cave deposits in W.Europe & S.Siberia dated to
   between ~ 200,000 & 50,000 y. ago. We detect a population replacement in
   N.Spain ~100,000 y. ago, accompanied by a turnover of mitochondrial DNA. We
   also identify two radiation events in Neanderthal history during the early
   part of the Late Pleistocene. ..."
   -- [doi:10.1126/science.abf1667]['21].

%A J. Pablo Bonilla Ataides
%A D. K. Tuckett
%A S. D. Bartlett
%A S. T. Flammia
%A B. J. Brown
%T The XZZX surface code
%J Nat. Comms.
%V 12
%N 2172
%D 2021
%K jrnl, c2021, c202x, c20xx, zz0421, quantum computing, fault tolerant, qubit,
   XZZX surface code
%X "Performing large calculations with a quantum computer will likely require a
   fault-tolerant architecture based on quantum error-correcting codes. ... we
   show that a variant of the surface code - the XZZX code - offers remarkable
   performance for fault-tolerant q.comp'n. The error threshold of this code
   matches what can be achieved with random codes (hashing) for every
   single-qubit Pauli noise channel; it is the first explicit code shown to have
   this universal property. We present numerical evidence that the threshold
   even exceeds this hashing bound for an experimentally relevant range of noise
   parameters. ... show that it is possible to maintain all of these advantages
   when we perform fault-tolerant quantum computation.
   -- [doi:10.1038/s41467-021-22274-1]['21].
   Also see [abc]['4/2021].

%A D. Deutsch
%A C. Marletto
%T Constructor theory of information
%J arXiv
%D 2014
%K TR, c2014, c201x, c20xx, zz0421, quantum physics, classical, information,
   theory, qubits
%X "We present a theory of information expressed solely in terms of which
   transformations of physical systems are possible & which are impossible -
   i.e. in constructor-theoretic terms. Although it includes conjectured laws of
   physics that are directly about info., indep. of the details of particular
   physical instantiations, it does not regard info. as an a priori
   mathematical or logical concept, but as something whose nature & properties
   are determined by the laws of physics alone. It does not suffer from the
   circularity at the foundations of existing info.theory (namely that info. &
   distinguishability are each defined in terms of the other). It explains the
   relationship between classical & quantum info., & reveals the single,
   constructor-theoretic property underlying the most distinctive phenomena
   assoc. with the latter, inc. the lack of in-principle distinguishability of
   some states, the impossibility of cloning, the existence of pairs of
   variables that cannot simultaneously have sharp values, the fact that
   measurement processes can be both deterministic & unpredictable, the
   irreducible perturbation caused by measurement, & entanglement (locally
   inaccessible information).
   -- 1405.5563@[arXiv]['21].
   Also see [www]['21] & [www]['21].
   [Also search for: Marletto].

%A C. Marletto
%T Constructor theory of life
%J arXiv
%D 2014
%K TR, c2014, c201x, c20xx, zz0421, life, reproduction, replication, replicator,
   natural selection, Darwinian, evolution
%X "Neo-Darwinian evol. theory explains how the appearance of purposive design
   in the sophisticated adaptations of living organisms can have come about
   without their intentionally being designed. The explanation relies crucially
   on the possibility of certain physical processes: mainly, gene replication &
   natural selection. ... I show that for those processes to be possible without
   the design of biological adaptations being encoded in the laws of physics,
   those laws must have certain other properties. The theory of what these
   properties are is not part of evolution theory proper, & has not been
   developed, yet without it the neo-Darwinian theory does not fully achieve its
   purpose of explaining the appearance of design. To this end I apply
   Constructor Theory's new mode of explanation to provide an exact formulation
   of the appearance of design, of no-design laws, & of the logic of
   self-reproduction & natural selection, within fundamental physics. I conclude
   that self-reproduction, replication & natural selection are possible under
   no-design laws, the only non-trivial condition being that they allow digital
   information to be physically instantiated. This has an exact characterisation
   in the constructor theory of information. I also show that under no-design
   laws an accurate replicator requires the existence of a 'vehicle'
   constituting, together with the replicator, a self-reproducer."
   -- 1407.0681@[arXiv]['21].
   [Also search for: Marletto constructor]

%A A. Vezzosi
%A A. Mortberg
%A A. Abel
%T Cubical Agda: A dependently typed programming language with univalence and
   higher inductive types
%D 2021
%K jrnl, FP, JFP, c2021, c202x, c20xx, zz0421, type, dependent, dependant,
   types, system, Agda, functional programming language
%X "... Cubical type theory provides a solution by giving computational meaning
   to Homotopy Type Theory and Univalent Foundations, in particular to the
   univalence axiom and higher inductive types (HITs). ... describes an ext'n of
   the dependently typed functional [PL] Agda with cubical primitives, making it
   into a full-blown proof assistant with native support for univalence and ..."
   -- [doi:10.1017/S0956796821000034]['21].
   [Also search for: Agda].

%A S. Bates
%A T. Hastie
%A R. Tibshirani
%T Cross-validation: what does it estimate and how well does it do it?
%J arXiv
%D 2021
%K TR, c2021, c202x, c20xx, zz0421, stats, cross validation, estimate, accuracy,
   variance, bootstrap, splitting, model, confidence interval, CI, stats
%X "... one would like to think that cross-validation estimates the prediction
   error for the model at hand, fit to the training data. We prove that this is
   not the case for the linear model fit by ordinary least squares; rather it
   estimates the avg. prediction error of models fit on other unseen training
   sets drawn from the same pop'n. We further show that this phenomenon occurs
   for most popular ests. of prediction error, inc. data splitting,
   bootstrapping, & Mallow's Cp. Next, the std confidence intervals for
   prediction error derived from cross-validation may have coverage far below
   the desired level. Because each data point is used for both training &
   testing, there are correlations among the measured accuracies for each fold,
   & so the usual est. of variance is too small. We introduce a nested
   cross-validation scheme to est. this variance more accurately, & show
   empirically that this modification leads to intervals with approx. correct
   coverage ... Lastly, our analysis also shows that when producing confidence
   intervals for prediction accuracy with simple data splitting, one should not
   re-fit the model on the combined data, since this invalidates the CIs."
   -- 2104.00673@[arXiv]['21]. [50 refs.  via AK]

%A P. Bloem
%T Finding motifs in knowledge graphs using compression
%J arXiv
%D 2021
%K TR, c2021, c202x, c20xx, zz0421, maths, graph, network, motif, compress
%X "We introduce a method to find network motifs in knowledge graphs. Network
   motifs are useful patterns or meaningful subunits of the g. that recur
   frequently. We extend the common definition of a n/wk motif to coincide with
   a basic g.pattern. We introduce an approach, inspired by recent work for
   simple gs., to induce these from a given knowledge g., & show that the motifs
   found reflect the basic structure of the g.. Specifically, we show that in
   random gs., no motifs are found, & that when we insert a motif artificially,
   it can be detected. Finally, we show the results of motif induction on three
   real-world knowledge gs.."
   -- 2104.08163@[arXiv]['21].
   [Also search for: graph motif compress].

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