BACKGROUND TO PROJECT MANAGEMENT
To be a successful project it must address the following 5 factors
* Name the stakeholders
* Making the project rules
MINIMUM STATEMENT OF WORKS: - PROJECT DEFINITION GOALS, ETC
1/ Clear purpose, goals, and constraints statement. The WHY are we doing this ?
2/ Scope statement (define boundaries & size) watch out for scope creep.
3/ Deliverable's (what will this project produce?)
4/ Cost & Schedule (budget and deadline) - write it all down!
5/ Set Objectives & Expectations, Functionality & Performance (Criteria for success!)
6/ Obtain agreement of Stakeholders (define roles) List the assumptions and agreementsA/ Project manager
B/ Project team
F/ Vendors if applicable
G/ Impacted Regions
7/ Clarify the Chain of Command (Who reports to Whom)
This may be reflected in the organization chart.
Communication will be via strictly minuted meetings of the Project
Team in conjunction with E-mail sent to all stakeholders in the form of
progress reports, and requests for services.
10/ Generate the Project Rules
Management support will be sought before the project begins.
|E - execution responsibility|
|C - must be consulted (opinion counts)|
|I - must be informed (want to know))|
|A - approval authority (Director or delegate)|
12/ Communication / Reporting Plan
|Sponsors||High Level Cost, Schedule, quality issues Problems & proposed actions||Monthly|
|Functional mgt.||Detailed Costing, schedule Problems & Proposed actions Assistance required||Weekly|
|Project Team||Etc, ….|
Other Types of Information: -13/ Charter: - Clearly establishes the Project Manager's right to make decisions and lead the project. This could be a separate document.
Published Meeting minutes, etc.
Include regular meetings to provide the Project Reporting Function.
* Risk Management
The plan analyzes in detail how to balance costs, schedule and quality, providing data the Project Manager can use in managing the stakeholder expectations.
The plan becomes the basis for evaluating progress during the project.
The plan includes comparisons between possible strategies for executing the project, allowing the team to choose the approach with the best chance of success
The resource projections contained in the plan for each project can be combined to create resource projections for the entire division.
All project management is risk management!
Develop a Project Plan
Will depend on resources available from the Division.
1/ How do we meet the Project goals: -
2/ Preparation of a requirements brief from the Scope details above.
3/ Preparation of a concept design similar to the "xyz" proposal.
4/ Preparation of a Technical Specification for the project: -
a/ Design a strategy / drawing.
b/ Allocate resources.
c/ Purchase / Deploy Suitable Hardware.
d/ Install / Cable in new hardware
e/ Configure new hardware in the O.S.
f/ Testing the installation
g/ Design to incorporate existing hardware
h/ Managers to approve budget.
5/ Use Common estimating and scheduling techniques.
Work Breakdown Structure (WBS). All deliverables from the Scope of Works SOW appear on the WBS. Need to name all the tasks required to produce the deliverables. A WBS is typically multi tiered and breaks the project down into descending levels of detail, from Summary Tasks that consist of several subordinate tasks, "activities" or Work Packages. In general tasks should follow the 8/80 rule, in that no task should be less than 8 hours or longer than 80 hours. This translates into between 1 and 10 days.
Next identify task relationships, sequence tasks into there correct order. Be aware of the task relationships
Calculate an initial schedule using Project software tools.a/ Finish to start
b/ Start to start
c/ Finish to Finish
For each work package "WP" or task determine: -
Early start the earliest date the task can begin,
given the tasks preceding it.
Early finish the earliest date the task can finish
given the tasks preceding it.
Late start the latest date a task can begin without
delaying the finish date of the project.
Late finish the latest date a task can finish without
delaying the finish date of the project.
Run a Forward Pass through the network diagram to determine the ES and EF values for each WP.
Work backward from the finish date to determine the LS and LF values for each WP. Calculate the float, (often called slack)
Float = LS - ES
Determine the CRITICAL PATH all the tasks with zero or negative float, when outlined on a network diagram forms the longest path through the network. Negative float results when externally imposed finish dates are impossible to meet. These require adjustments to be made to the schedule to bring it in line with the critical path.
Project Dates: -
We are now in a position to nail down some critical dates for the Project.
Given an end date we can generate the latest start date for the project.
Other external factors may feed in to force the start date to today
For example: -
** Watch out for clauses that will allow a project to slip.
All work will be completed on a schedule to be advised to the Project
Manager. This schedule will depend on the availability of selected staff
and their existing priorities. It is expected that every attempt will be
made to meet the deadlines proposed delivered upon best efforts basis only.
6/ Determine who will do the work
7/ Determine how much it will costSequence the tasks - create work packages
Identify Summary tasks
Calculate an initial schedule Advice from the Region
Assign and level resources (pre-fabrication etc)
Materials cost: - Advice from the technical support.
Seek Original Budget approval.
8/ Determine when it will be completed
Realistic schedule: - Closed off by date dd/mm/yyyy or sooner
9/ Generate a Project Plan: - Will be created at planning meetings
Generate a Risk Profile for the Project
A/ They are industry specific
B/ They are organization specific
C/ They address both product and management risks
D/ They predict the magnitude of each risk
Create a Risk Management plan (could be a separate document)
Risk 1/ Definition Condition: - Cause for concern
Consequence: - Describe the negative outcome
11/ Probability high medium low
111/ Strategy 'damage control'
1/ Identify areas of greatest risk/uncertainty
Working around a "live" Production system2/ Create strategies to manage the risk
a/ Work with the least critical dev env. First demonstrate3/ Document a backout procedure before work begins
we have full functionality before we tackle the Prod env.
b/ Assign probabilities to risks. e.g. task 1. Prob~ 0.001
c/ Define the risk including the negative impact
d/ Develop a strategy to manage damage control.
4/ Additional "backups" may be required before work begins
5/ The detailed strategy laid out in the plan becomes a
Reality check for the cost-schedule-quality equilibrium
* Corrective Actions,
* Project Closure
b/ Create an Issues Log
Baseline v/s Actual on Gantt Chart
e/ Cash Flow Monitoring
1 Original Budget
2 Actual Cost to date
3 Planned cost to complete
4 Variance = 1 - (2 + 3)
5 Percentage Variance = 4/1 x 100 %
f/ Earned value analysis
1 Budget costs for work Scheduled BCWS
2 Budget costs for work performed BCWP
3 Actual costs for work performed ACWP
Schedule Variance = BCWP - BCWS
Cost Variance = BCWP - ACWP if negative cost over-run!
4 Estimated cost at Completion EC
5 Budgeted cost at Completion BC
6 Estimated Value at Completion EVAC = BC - EC
Keep status reports short
Also use informal communication
1/ Progress measurement - identify problems earlyWork to only proceed when the Specified Staff are present.
3/ Corrective action - day to day responses to all obstacles and problems encountered - setup escalation procedures.
Project Manager will report the success of the project to Stakeholders in E-mail. And sign off the task with the major Sponsors.
Authority to begin: - Director __________________ date_____
Project Completed: - Sponsor one ________________ date_____
Sponsor two ________________ date_____
Post Implementation Review
If required appoint an outside consultant to review the impact of the project on the Division, in particular the section ongoing support requirements.
Senior Research Analyst ITS Division